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What is Kidney Stones

  • These stones can restrict the flow of urine, and lead to serious complications including infection, kidney damage or even kidney failure
  • Kidney stones affect men more than women
  • Causes can include dietary factors, environmental factors, genetic factors


  • Blood in urine
  • Difficulty urinating if stone is too large
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pain when passing urine
  • Severe pain on the back and flanks of the abdomen, radiating towards the front and groin area


  • If the kidney stones are small:
    • No treatment is required. With plenty of water, the stones may eventually pass out in the urine
    • Pain killers may be prescribed to alleviate pain during the passing of the stones
  • If your kidney stones are large, the following treatment options are available:
    • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
    • Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL)
    • Uretero-Renoscopy (URS)